Your auto insurance may include Liability, Medical, Property Damage, Comprehensive, Collision, Towing & Labor, Rental Reimbursement, Accidental Death & Dismemberment and Uninsured motorists. Each state require you to have certain liability limits.
Your home insurance may include coverage for your dwelling, other structures, personal property, liability, medical to others.
There are endorsements available with some carriers to increase coverage for items such as jewelry, guns, furs, etc. If your carrier does not offer an endorsement to increase these items you can purchase a separate policy for those, called Inland Marine.
They do not cover things such as sink holes, earthquakes, mudslides or flood. You would need to acquire those policies separately.
Home insurance claims can be settled on two different valuations: Actual Cash Value (depreciated) or Replacement Costs. Most Mortgage companies require you to have insurance on your home as long as there is a loan on the property.
There are many types of insurance available for businesses. Buildings, Liability, property contents, business interruption, loss of income, and more. There is also coverage available for all types of equipment, tractor trailers, etc. Workers Compensation coverage is often required by the state. Primary or General Contractors also ask most subcontractors to provide Certificates of Insurance proving they have this coverage.